Suspension is an important assembly in a car that elastically links the frame to the wheel and is related to the various uses of the car. From the outside, the car suspension is composed of only some rods, cylinders and springs, but don't think it is very simple. On the contrary, the car suspension is a car assembly that is difficult to achieve perfect requirements, because the suspension is both To meet the comfort requirements of the car, it must meet the requirements of its handling stability, and these two aspects are opposite each other. For example, in order to achieve good comfort, it is necessary to greatly buffer the vibration of the car, so that the spring is designed to be softer, but the spring is soft, but it is easy for the car to brake "nod", accelerate "head up" and serious left and right roll. The tendency is not conducive to the steering of the car, and it is easy to cause unstable operation of the car.
The typical suspension structure is composed of an elastic member, a guiding mechanism, a shock absorber, and the like, and the individual structure also has a buffer block, a stabilizer bar, and the like. The elastic elements are in the form of leaf springs, air springs, coil springs and torsion bar springs. Modern car suspensions use coil springs and torsion bar springs, while individual high-class cars use air springs. Part function:
(1) Shock absorber
Function: The damper is the main component that generates the damping force. Its function is to quickly attenuate the vibration of the car, improve the ride comfort of the car and enhance the adhesion of the wheel and the ground. In addition, the damper can reduce the dynamic load of the body part. Extend the service life of the car. The dampers widely used in automobiles are mainly cylindrical hydraulic dampers, and their structures can be divided into three types: double cylinder type, single cylinder type inflatable type and double tube type inflatable type.
Working principle: During the up and down jump of the wheel, the damper piston reciprocates in the working chamber, so that the damper liquid passes through the orifice on the piston, due to the certain viscosity of the liquid and the passage of the liquid through the orifice Friction is generated to convert kinetic energy into heat and dissipate into the air, thereby achieving the function of damping vibration.
(2) elastic components
Function: Support vertical load, moderate and suppress vibration and impact caused by uneven road surface. Elastic components mainly include leaf spring, coil spring, torsion bar spring, air spring and rubber spring.
Principle: With parts made of a material with higher elasticity, when the wheel is subjected to a large impact, the kinetic energy is converted into elastic potential energy and stored, and released when the wheel jumps or returns to the original driving state.
(3) Guiding mechanism
The role of the guiding mechanism is to transmit forces and moments, and at the same time to guide. The trajectory of the wheel can be controlled during the driving of the car.